2. Basic Elements of C-ITS deployment in Europe

In the AG it is generally agreed to follow a phased deployment approach with an initial deployment of simple – non-complex Day One services where user benefits are achieved even with limited penetration of ITS in vehicles and equipped road side units in “hot spot” areas and corridors. In the following phases the complexity will increase including crash avoidance and hard safety services with increased penetration of vehicles with ITS equipment and increased infrastructure coverage and integration. The final objective is to have a service environment in which the road infrastructure is completely integrated with the cooperative capabilities of the vehicles to bring together an optimum range of cooperative services (Figure 1).

The introduction will be an evolution instead of revolution - Implementation will not be a Big Bang, but rather a transition phase over years. With an increased penetration and improved services in new ITS hot spots and corridors the customer benefit will further increase. The ITS hot spots and corridors will converge in the future to continuous services to the benefit for end users and traffic management services.

Figure 1: Phase concept of C-ITS deployment

The C-ITS day one system will be technically interoperable and based on agreed standards and an ITS system specification which is currently being developed/agreed between the stakeholders from OEMs and Infrastructure. C- ITS hot spots and corridors should apply the same standards (V2V, V2I), and be scalable. Interoperable ITS services in vehicles together with the approach of regional, national and European cross border (e.g. corridor) deployment will support each other towards a general market take up.

A fast penetration is of course the common goal but market needs and related business models should be taken into account and investment done by road authorities and road operators should be in line with their public policy objectives. While the initial infrastructure deployment will be based on needs for ITS services within a particular area the automotive industry deployment is prepared for a competitive market. The two approaches will support each other towards optimum coverage of cooperative ITS with enhanced services. In this respect, the technology should serve the services: fast penetration by means of harmonised and user oriented services while ensuring technical and operational interoperability and scalability.

Service provision on the roads and in the vehicles will rely on different communication technologies, so a hybrid communication concept will be applied. It has also to be regarded that diversification is taking place, i.e. not every technology will be applied for every service. The hybrid approach points towards the following communication technologies:

  • Short range communication based on ETSI ITS-G5 represents the focus of the Amsterdam Group. For V2V and V2I/I2V communication services with low latency requirements including safety related services the ITS G5 is developed and agreed between the automotive industry and the infrastructure organisations.  The agreed system specification will provide the basis for implementation and deployment of Day-1 services in a competitive automotive market from 2015 onwards. The same ETSI ITS-G5 communication standards and the agreed system speciation are applied by road authorities and operators for specific V2I/I2V services and supported by CEN.
  • For back-end services other technologies such as cellular communication including 3G, 4G are regarded as complementary technologies. These services can e.g. address non time-critical applications or provide coverage in areas where short range communication based on ITS G5 is not provided because of geographical conditions (e.g. remote areas). Back end services also provide an opportunity for operational service provider support. A criterion for the choice of different communication technologies is also area coverage of traffic information and/or traffic management services being local or network wide.

Release 1 of the ETSI ITS-G5 standards release 1 is finalised and further harmonisation C-ITS standardisation is ongoing both in ETSI and CEN. ETSI ITS-G5 has been chosen by the automotive industry OEMs as the optimum solution for V2V and V2I communication and profiling of standards with triggering conditions, minimum performance requirements and security framework towards a common system specification providing general interoperability will be finalised by autumn 2013. The ITS-G5 standards will, as it has happened in the mobile communications sector, evolve gradually in time with improved features to be developed as release 2 by the standards organisations. In order to ensure service provision to all users backward compatibility must be guaranteed.

Retrofit and after-market equipment will be able to support the development and penetration increase of cooperative ITS, independently of the technology evolution. However this is questionable in particular for safety related services with low latency requirements and needs further study. The European stakeholders are following the technical and regulatory development in the USA, where after-market equipment will play an important role to achieve a fast deployment penetration. Even if the development is different between EU and US (e.g. US focus on regulated safety services with broader focus on market driven safety, efficiency and sustainability services in the EU), there is a good potential for learning from experience and approach between the different regions.

The expected benefits of cooperative ITS are various even for Day One services:

  • Benefits within the transport system: road safety improvement, traffic efficiency and sustainability,
  • The end user will perceive e.g. a more comfortable and efficient travelling,
  • Benefits for individual stakeholders such improved traffic management including specific day one use cases service smooth (urban) traffic resulting in less pollution and a more reliable (inter)urban travelling,
  • Economic boost for industry and service providers, supporting the Europe 2020 strategy of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth,
  • Multimodality aspects will be facilitated by C-ITS,
  • Pilot implementation projects are being developed in a number of European cities.
Stakeholder Most common benefits (non exhaustive)
Table 1: Taxonomy of benefits for core C-ITS stakeholders
User

Improved driving safety
Insurance premium savings
Time savings (congestion relief)
Improved fuel efficiency
Improved driving comfort

Automotive industry / OEM’s

Improved product safety
Higher value of the vehicles
Contributing to supplying mobility services
Intensified Customer relationship management
Better information to drivers
Big data resulting from vehicle-infrastructure communication

Commercial value of the collected data
Road authorities

Reducing incidents and accidents
More effective and efficient traffic information and management
Improving labour productivity (e.g. road workers) by reducing absence times
Asset condition monitoring (friction, potholes etc.)
Reducing cost of traffic data collection
Road capacity optimisation
Better information to drivers

Potential to reduce or remove infrastructure (such as loops and VMS)

(Commercial)

Road operators

Improve infrastructure design
Improve perceived safety by the users
Improve user acceptance
Reduce cost of infrastructure operation and maintenance

Reduce ecological and energy impact
Cities

Safer traffic in cities
Less congestion in the urban road network
More environmental friendly road traffic
Asset condition monitoring (friction, potholes etc.)
Reducing cost of traffic data collection
Road capacity optimisation
Better information to drivers

Potential to reduce or remove infrastructure (such as loops and VMS)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The foreseen multi-stakeholder commitment in the Amsterdam Group to deploy C-ITS from 2015 onwards and Front Runner implementations will create a market momentum. The Amsterdam Group prefers a voluntary approach to C-ITS deployment stimulated by the European Commission:

  • It does not favour a possible mandated deployment as expected in the USA as such an approach takes much longer to implement and will not be market driven in meeting the increasing customer needs for new communication requirements.
  • A voluntary approach stimulated by the Commission based on market development in combination with road authorities / road operator policies as we plan it in Europe will adapt to the normal market forces and will ensure services and systems required by the users.
  • Key stakeholders should support the preparation of EU wide specifications while Front Runners experience and investments should be taken into account when establishing e.g. specifications on EU level or roll out of services in follower countries. Therefore a voluntary approach (public – private cooperation) which is supported by both industry and authorities should be followed.

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