4. Open Issues to be treated to allow deployment by 2015

Open issues to be treated to allow deployment by 2015

The initial deployment of a day one service/system for cooperative ITS (C-ITS) requires a range of activities of technical as well as operational and strategic nature. This all are needed in cooperation among the members of the AG in order to close the last open issues to allow deployment by 2015. The structuring of the open issues in a specific time framework is the consequent next step. It is more than logical that the open issues are interfaced and have strong relations to each other.

The following overview does not differ upon issues related to deployment design/planning and implementation.

Open Issues Who is leading currently
Day one applications AG
Technical Standardisation ETSI / CEN
System specification C2C-CC
Decentralised Congestion Control ETSI
Co-Existence 5,8 / 5,9 GHz Applications ETSI / CEPT
International harmonisation EC (DG Connect)
Specify Backend Services Front Runners
Roles & Responsibilities Front Runners
Agree on Security & Privacy framework C2C-CC
Agree on Compliance assessment processes C2C-CC
Develop lifecycle management C2C-CC
Quality Management not identified yet
Hybrid Communication Concept AG
Coordinated Marketing Activities AG
Retrofit Devices not identified yet
Implement Front Runners
Operate Front Runners

 

This is a short list of open issues to achieve the first/initial simple implementation for day one services.  More issues need to be solved to achieve a complete/sustainable implementation of the day one services. The above mentioned issues are also relevant and stay on the list when discussing the day 2-3-4 C-ITS services.

The day one applications – V2V and some of the V2I services - have been tested and validated within large-scale field operational tests in Europe. Gaps and still missing standards are substituted by white papers as temporary standards to be used in parallel for the standards development within the SDOs.

For a number of years the technical standards for C-ITS have been developed within the standards organizations (SDOs) such as CEN – ETSI – IEEE - ISO – SAE as well as in national standards organizations e.g. Japan. Release 1 of the standards is now close to finalization and activities to achieve a certain level of coordination and harmonization is ongoing.

In a competitive market approach where the individual industry players provide their specific implementation it is important that a minimum system specification is followed in order to enable component development and individual OEM system integration to achieve a reliable and consistent complete service chain. This approach in C-ITS now has to be complemented by the system specification needed for the setup of the system for V2I and I2V services too. The day one system specification is currently being developed within the C2C-CC for the services to be included in the vehicle, however the infrastructure organizations ready for deployment need to complement with their point of view. It is clear that full compatibility between both worlds should be guaranteed as long as both approaches rely on the same family of available standards. Current open issues, such as coexistence of non-IP versus IP based communications should be made compatible taking into account the recommendations and implementations of the European standardization bodies.

Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC), i.e. preventing the communication channel(s) from being congested by incoming/outgoing messages (managing road traffic congestion is not addressed here), is under development within ETSI. Even if DCC is more relevant for higher vehicle penetration it is important to initiate the framework for DCC even in a day one system.

Co-Existence 5,8 / 5,9 GHz Applications: Future 5.9 GHz ITS applications shall not interfere with the European Electronic Toll applications based on DSRC in the 5.8 GHz band. ETSI has taken over responsibility to come up with a solution and has consequently issued respective co-existence standards.

The coexistence standards including ETSI TS 102 792 have been published and a reference for limits and conformance is included in the relevant Harmonised Standard, which is now in the EN approval Process within ETSI.

International harmonisation (EU-US-JP): The implementation of C-ITS is an international and worldwide issue. Especially taking into account the markets OEMs are facing. But also for road operators this is a chance to exchange information with other partners which have already investigated in open issues for the operation and implementation of C-ITS.

A general standard on roles and responsibilities has been developed within CEN TC 278. It is required that in addition each day one use case will need a specifically described roles and responsibility implementation which might vary per country or road authority. 

A detailed security and privacy framework has been developed and standardized within ETSI TC ITS. A common security public key infrastructure (PKI) is needed and the related security and privacy policy framework to be developed. Within the C2C-CC a pilot for such a PKI has been established and is currently being tested. The pilot PKI is operational from April 2013. Furthermore discussions are ongoing about the policy issues for security in close cooperation with the US OEMs. The deployment projects will be invited to participate in this pilot with the aim to develop a common security/privacy framework in Europe.

Compliance assessment/certification of the ITS system with individual vehicle as well as infrastructure C-ITS implementations are being developed within the C2C-CC. This includes development of common test procedures for both general test cases and application specific test procedures. The compliance assessment process for C-ITS, which is developed by C2C-CC, is currently under discussion with European infrastructure operators and providers in order to achieve global coordination of compliance assessment and testing framework activities, cooperation is ongoing between the C2C-CC and the USA OEM stakeholders within the CAMP/VIIC.

The stakeholders have a strong focus on day one deployment in their current preparation for deployment. In the technical development it is, however, also important to consider lifecycle management to ensure that the technical C-ITS implementation for day one will also be applied for next generation systems – day two - and that day two technology will take into account day one services.  This framework is being considered within the initial system specification.

Quality management is of increasing importance in relation to the deployment of Cooperative ITS. An important issue is enhancing the reliability of ITS Services by improving the consistency along the whole value chain e.g. dynamic roadside and in-vehicle messages as well as traffic management strategies on national, regional and local networks. The quality management issue can be seen complementary to the compliance assessment activities but focusing on the operation of C-ITS.

It is important to make clear agreements between stakeholders about the exchange, the data quality, the right-of-use, privacy issues, right-of-use of data, security of data etc.

Hybrid Communication Concept: The provision of cooperative services requires cooperative technologies allowing the vehicles to communicate with roadside infrastructure and other vehicles to share data about the traffic status and immediate road environment. Not all applications necessarily involve two-way V2I communication or V2V communication. Also these communication needs can be satisfied by different technologies, involving short range communication based on ITS G5 and for backend services cellular communication such as 3G and 4G. The general communication architecture standard, EN 302 665, is the basis for C-ITS communication without dependencies to specific communication technologies.  This should lead to a common agreement on the communication architecture for alternative communication means taking into account the day one applications agreed.

Marketing activities and PR: Efficient marketing activities of cooperative services will be one of the success factors for the introduction of cooperative ITS. This marketing activities should not only focus on the end user, but should also take into account countries, OEMs and road operators. One key issue will be the creation of a trademark (e.g. CoSy similar to WiFi) under which cooperative ITS services will be promoted as it is expected that different OEMs will sell the feature of C-ITS under a different function.

Retrofit devices: The roll out of cooperative services and the penetration rate will highly depend on the availability of nomadic devices for retrofit or temporal installation in cars.

Implement and Operate: In the implementation and operation of day 1 services issues will arise. An organisational structure will have to be implemented in order to cope with these requests.

 

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